Bird flu symptoms causes transmission survival

A huge 30, Christmas turkeys are set to be slaughtered after an outbreak of bird flu at a farm near Attleborough in Norfolk. The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs has announced the outbreak and brought in measures to protect poultry and captive birds in the UK.

What are the symptoms of bird flu, and how do you catch it? Avian Influenza A, also known as bird flu, has caused a number of outbreaks around the world over the years. Since there have been 1, human cases of bird flu and deaths worldwide from the H7N9 strain. We will use your email address only for sending you newsletters.

Please see our Privacy Notice for details of your data protection rights. Only the H5, H7 and H10 strains cause deaths in humans, and plans are in place to manage suspected cases. There are only nine confirmed cases of the disease in poultry and other captive birds in England at present. The Government has said that while bird flu can affect humans and other mammals, bird flu mainly affects birds.

What is the Asian Flu?

Pandemic on Netflix: How long have previous pandemics lasted? The NHS site explains that this can happen by touching infected birds, touching droppings or bedding, and killing or preparing infected poultry for cooking. The seasonal flu jab does not protect against bird flu and people who show symptoms will need to stay at home or be cared for in a hospital in isolation. Antiviral medicine such as Tamiflu or Relenza treats the condition and improves the chance of survival.

Bird flu: WHO discuss the size of pandemic outbreak in How many people died of bird flu? There are different trains of the avian flu, with sixteen H subtypes and nine N subtypes. Bird flu symptoms: Bird flu has been confirmed in thousands of birds in England Image: Getty. Bird flu symptoms: people have died of bird flu since Image: Getty. Bird flu symptoms: Some strains of avian influenza can pass to humans, but it's rare Image: Getty.

There are only nine confirmed cases of the disease in poultry and other captive birds in England at present The Government has said that while bird flu can affect humans and other mammals, bird flu mainly affects birds. Bird flu symptoms: Symptoms include fever, headache and cough Image: Getty.

How do you catch it? Bird flu is spread to humans through close contact with an infected bird, dead or alive. Symptoms The seasonal flu jab does not protect against bird flu and people who show symptoms will need to stay at home or be cared for in a hospital in isolation.

The main symptoms normally appear within three to five days and include: a very high temperature or feeling hot or shivery aching muscles headache a cough Other early symptoms may include: diarrhoea sickness stomach pain chest pain bleeding from the nose and gums conjunctivitis.Cite This Article.

Understanding of ecologic factors favoring emergence and maintenance of highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI viruses is limited. Although low pathogenic avian influenza viruses persist and evolve in wild populations, HPAI viruses evolve in domestic birds and cause economically serious epizootics that only occasionally infect wild populations.

We propose that evolutionary ecology considerations can explain this apparent paradox. Host structure and transmission possibilities differ considerably between wild and domestic birds and are likely to be major determinants of virulence. Because viral fitness is highly dependent on host survival and dispersal in nature, virulent forms are unlikely to persist in wild populations if they kill hosts quickly or affect predation risk or migratory performance.

Interhost transmission in water has evolved in low pathogenic influenza viruses in wild waterfowl populations. However, oropharyngeal shedding and transmission by aerosols appear more efficient for HPAI viruses among domestic birds.

Wild birds, especially waterbirds of the orders Anseriformes ducks, geese, and swans and Charadriiformes gulls, terns, and wadersare natural hosts for influenza A avian influenza viruses. Avian influenza viruses are classified on the basis of genetic, antigenic, and structural characteristics of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins. These proteins are involved in binding of virus to host cells and release of new virions from these cells, respectively.

Sixteen hemagglutinins H1—H16 and 9 neuraminidases N1—N9 have been described. For avian influenza viruses of subtypes H5 and H7, there are 2 types of virulence: low pathogenic avian influenza LPAI virus generally produces benign intestinal tract or respiratory infections; highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI virus generally produces multiorgan systemic infections.

LPAI viruses naturally infect wild waterbirds according to host species, age, immune status, feeding behavior, premigration aggregation, and aquatic survival of the virus.

Long-term studies in Europe and North America also identified seasonal variation in prevalences of infection of LPAI virus and circulating subtypes. HPAI viruses primarily infect poultry in which viruses of subtypes H5 and H7, presumably from wild birds or contact with their derivatives, sporadically switch to highly virulent strains.

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At the end of the 19th century, a disease that caused high mortality rates and spread rapidly was described in domestic birds in Italy. This fowl plague spread through Europe in the early 20th century, most likely through trading of domestic birds. Inthe pathogen responsible for the disease was classified as an influenza A virus, and its relationship to human influenza viruses was recognized. Domestic birds have been affected by recurrent outbreaks of HPAI viruses, generally limited to localized geographic areas but responsible for high mortality rates and substantial economic losses.

In contrast, wild birds have rarely been involved in HPAI virus infections. Extensive surveillance of apparently healthy wild populations has rarely detected HPAI virus H5N1even in areas where the virus is endemic in domestic birds 2. In addition, some reports of asymptomatic infection by HPAI virus H5N1 in apparently healthy free-living wild birds lack important substantiating information and such cases of infection have yet to be convincingly demonstrated 3.Asian influenzacommonly known as the Asian fluis a viral respiratory illness caused by the H2N2 strain of Type A influenza.

The H2N2 Asian flu is the result of avian influenza — that is, a flu normally found in birds — crossed with a human influenza virus. The Asian flu results in symptoms similar to many other strains of influenza, including fever, body aches, chills, cough, weaknessand loss of appetite. The Asian flu was responsible for a Category 2 flu pandemic from tomeaning that it was a worldwide spread of the virus with a case-to-fatality ratio between 0.

H2N2 became extinct in the wild circa Influenza is an illness caused by many subtypes that can change, mutate, and cross with other strains. Occasionally a bird or animal flu can reassort its genetic material, cross the animal-human species barrier, and begin infecting the human population. The H2N2 Asian flu was the result of a cross between a virus found in wild ducks and a human influenza virus.

Asian flu causes many of the symptoms commonly reported in an influenza virus. Influenza is a respiratory illness, so a dry coughsore throat, and difficulty breathing are all widely reported among flu sufferers. Influenza usually results in a high fever and body aches or chills. An individual might have no appetite and subsequently lose weight. Recovery from the H2N2 can take many weeks; complications include pneumoniaseizures, heart failure, and death.

Asian influenza caused a worldwide pandemic inwhen the virus jumped from ducks to humans and then began human-to-human transmission.

From there, the Asian influenza virus spread to the rest of the world. Although the illness infected humans across the globe, it remained a relatively mild pandemic and is rated as a Category 2 on the U. This chart rates pandemic flu from one to five — mild to severe — according to the number of influenza deaths reported in the U.

A vaccine for H2N2 was introduced inand the pandemic slowed down. There was a second wave inand H2N2 went on to become part of the regular wave of seasonal flu. Inthe H2N2 Asian flu disappeared from the human population and is believed to have gone extinct in the wild. Vials of H2N2 influenza remain in laboratories across the world.

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Please enter the following code:. Login: Forgot password?Official websites use. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. The Asian Bird Flu. Used with permission. What is "Asian Bird Flu"?

Transmission and infection of H5N1

This Asian strain of avian influenza is also known as H5N1 avian influenza virus and is a type of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus HPAI that causes a severe disease in poultry. The Asian Bird Flu is unusual because it is extremely deadly for poultry, it has spread to many different countries in Asia at least 11has caused disease outbreaks in wild birds, and it has caused a number of human infections and deaths.

bird flu symptoms causes transmission survival

These features make this strain of avian influenza different from and more dangerous than any other outbreak of avian influenza that we have seen in the last 60 years. Avian influenza is normally a virus that infects wild water birds, but it normally does not cause disease in this group of birds.

The virus on rare occasions has spread to poultry species, like chickens, turkeys, and domestic ducks, where it can cause mild to severe disease. Avian influenza in humans. We normally do not consider avian influenza to be a virus that can spread from birds to people a zoonotic infectionbut the Asian Bird Flu virus has resulted in the infection of over people in Southeast Asia, primarily in Thailand and Vietnam. Almost all of the infected people have had close, direct contact with live poultry infected with Asian Bird Flu.

Most poultry in Southeast Asia are produced as backyard or village poultry where people and birds have frequent contact. Birds infected with Asian Bird Flu can shed large amounts of virus in feces and other bodily secretions that can, under rare circumstances, result in human infections. Importantly, the transmission of Asian Bird Flu from birds to humans is extremely rare. However, if the virus starts to be transmitted efficiently from humans to humans, then a human pandemic of influenza may occur.

Public health officials are working on plans for control of any large scale human outbreak with vaccines and antiviral medications, but prevention would be the preferred solution. Controlling the spread of Asian Bird Flu in Asia.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus is a particularly infectious disease in poultry, but in the past many outbreaks have been completely controlled through the close interaction of government officials and the poultry industry. The current situation in Asia however presents unique challenges for control. First, the virus is present in a large geographic region, and a large percentage of poultry is the backyard or village chicken type.

Secondly, the virus is present in wild birds. Finally, many of the countries in the region are economically underdeveloped, which hampers their ability to respond to disease outbreaks.

Control of Asian Bird Flu in poultry will require not only close cooperation of Asian officials, but additional outside support will be needed to eliminate the virus from the region. These control efforts include placing quarantines, vaccination programs, and improved diagnostic programs to identify infected poultry flocks.

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Can I get avian influenza from eating or handling poultry products? There is no danger of acquiring Asian Bird Flu from properly cooked poultry or poultry products. Avian influenza virus is easily destroyed by the heat of normal cooking. Additionally, infected or even suspect poultry would not be sold in the U.

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In the unlikely possibility that infected poultry was processed for food, standard good food handling practices of washing hands after handling raw poultry would greatly reduce the chance of a food related disease outbreak. The U. Virtually all of the chicken and turkey sold in the United States is produced in the United Statesand the U. Considerable effort has been made to both prevent the introduction of Asian Bird Flu into the U.

This has included participation and action by federal and state governments, the poultry industry, poultry trade groups, scientists, and public health officials.

bird flu symptoms causes transmission survival

The most likely scenarios for introduction of Asian Bird Flu into the U. The importation of birds or bird products from the affected area has been banned or placed under strict control by the U. Virtually all of the chicken and turkey sold in the United States is produced in the United States.With human resistance to viral infections falling, bird flu preparedness is a necessary aspect of survival training awareness.

Avian influenza, also known as bird flu, is a naturally occurring virus found in all bird species. While many wild birds carry the virus but do not become sick, domesticated birds such as turkeys, chickens and ducks can easily contract the virus and develop severe and often fatal intestinal and respiratory infections.

Transmission of a highly pathogenic class of avian influenza via body secretions of infected birds can wipe out a large group of domesticated fowl within two days.

Now that we know how avian influenza is transmitted, effective implementation of bird-flu preparedness is a viable and necessary aspect of any survival plan. Because viruses quickly evolve to resist medications, humans cannot always rely on anti-viral solutions to prevent bird flu from becoming a pandemic.

However, preventative tactics do exist to reduce the chance of contracting bird flu should a pandemic occur. The first recorded instance of suspected bird flu occurred in late Italy, when chickens began dying of a strange disease. However, it was not until when eighteen people living in Hong Kong developed severe upper respiratory symptoms requiring hospitalization.

Six of these individuals died because of contracting the H5N1 strain of bird flu. Six years later, two more people fell ill to bird flu, with one victim dying from the disease. People suffering from bird flu exhibit symptoms resembling regular flu, aching muscles, fever, sore throat, coughing and nausea.

However, bird flu viruses contain unique mutations differing from human flu viruses that correlate to how the virus replicates as well as to immune system suppression. Due to these aberrations, bird flu seriously sickens people by producing severe respiratory complications that include pneumonia, breathing problems, conjunctivitis, and shock.

No cure for bird flu currently exists other than treating symptoms as they appear. When venturing outside during a bird flu pandemic, utilizing PPE is necessary to prevent possible infection. Special types of facemasks known as N95 respirators will halt transmission of the virus into your respiratory system.

N95 respirators are disposable and remain effective for eight hours, after which you will need to replace them. Wearing eye goggles, latex gloves and clothing impervious to secretions, rain gear, for example, are highly recommended as well.

bird flu symptoms causes transmission survival

Also, be aware that if a bird flu pandemic occurs, demand for PPE items will skyrocket, so stock up on them ahead of time to avoid infection. Bird flu preparedness means not waiting until bird flu is infecting half the world's population before attempting to purchase PPE. Viral and bacterial pandemics can last months and even years before researches find a cure or the virus eventually evolves into a non-infectious form.

Attending to bird flu preparedness now instead of later will keep you and your family alive and healthy during a worldwide bird flu pandemic. All Rights Reserved. Comments Have your say about what you just read! Leave me a comment in the box below.Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not infect people, rare cases of human infection with these viruses have been reported. Infected birds shed avian influenza virus in their saliva, mucous and feces. This can happen when virus is in the air in droplets or possibly dust and a person breathes it in, or when a person touches something that has virus on it then touches their mouth, eyes or nose.

Rare human infections with some avian viruses have occurred most often after unprotected contact with infected birds or surfaces contaminated with avian influenza viruses. However, some infections have been identified where direct contact was not known to have occurred.

Illness in people has ranged from mild to severe. The spread of avian influenza A viruses from one ill person to another has been reported very rarely, and when it has been reported it has been limited, inefficient and not sustained.

However, because of the possibility that avian influenza A viruses could change and gain the ability to spread easily between people, monitoring for human infection and person-to-person spread is extremely important for public health. Avian influenza A virus infection in people cannot be diagnosed by clinical signs and symptoms alone; laboratory testing is needed. Avian influenza A virus infection is usually diagnosed by collecting a swab from the upper respiratory tract nose or throat of the sick person.

Testing is more accurate when the swab is collected during the first few days of illness. This specimen is sent to a laboratory; the laboratory looks for avian influenza A virus either by using a molecular test, by trying to grow the virus, or both.

Growing avian influenza A viruses should only be done in laboratories with high levels of biosafety. For critically ill patients, collection and testing of lower respiratory tract specimens also may lead to diagnosis of avian influenza virus infection.

However for some patients who are no longer very sick or who have fully recovered, it may be difficult to detect the avian influenza A virus in the specimen. Sometimes it may still be possible to diagnose avian influenza A virus infection by looking for evidence of antibodies the body has produced in response to the virus. This is not always an option because it requires two blood specimens one taken during the first week of illness and another taken weeks later.

Also, it can take several weeks to verify the results, and testing must be performed in a special laboratory, such as at CDC. CDC has posted guidance for clinicians and public health professionals in the United States on appropriate testing, specimen collection and processing of samples from patients who may be infected with avian influenza A viruses. CDC currently recommends a neuraminidase inhibitor for treatment of human infection with avian influenza A viruses.

Analyses of available avian influenza viruses circulating worldwide suggest that most viruses are susceptible to oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir. However, some evidence of antiviral resistance has been reported in Asian H5N1 and Asian H7N9 viruses isolated from some human cases. Monitoring for antiviral resistance among avian influenza A viruses is crucial and ongoing.

Bird Flu Basics

The best way to prevent infection with avian influenza A viruses is to avoid sources of exposure. Most human infections with avian influenza A viruses have occurred following direct or close contact with infected poultry. People who have had contact with infected birds may be given influenza antiviral drugs preventatively.

While antiviral drugs are most often used to treat influenza, they also can be used to prevent infection in someone who has been exposed to influenza viruses.Transmission and infection of H5N1 from infected avian sources to humans has been a concern since the first documented case of human infection in[1] due to the global spread of H5N1 that constitutes a pandemic threat. Infected birds pass on H5N1 through their salivanasal secretionsand feces. Other birds may pick up the virus through direct contact with these excretions or when they have contact with surfaces contaminated with this material.

Because migratory birds are among the carriers of the H5N1 virus it may spread to all parts of the world. Past outbreaks of avian flu have often originated in crowded conditions in southeast and east Asiawhere humans, pigsand poultry live in close quarters. In these conditions a virus is more likely to mutate into a form that more easily infects humans.

A few isolated cases of suspected human to human transmission exist, [2] with the latest such case in June among members of a family in Sumatra.

H5N1 vaccines for chickens exist and are sometimes used, although there are many difficulties, and it's difficult to decide whether it helps more or hurts more. H5N1 pre-pandemic vaccines exist in quantities sufficient to inoculate a few million people [4] and might be useful for priming to "boost the immune response to a different H5N1 vaccine tailor-made years later to thwart an emerging pandemic".

Avian flu virus can last indefinitely at a temperature dozens of degrees below freezing, as is found in the northernmost areas that migratory birds frequent. Ordinary levels of chlorine in tap water kill H5N1 in public water systems. To kill avian flu viruses, [11]. H5N1 "can remain infectious in municipal landfills for almost 2 years.

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The current method of prevention in animal populations is to destroy infected animals, as well as animals suspected of being infected. In southeast Asiamillions of domestic birds have been slaughtered to prevent the spread of the virus. There have been a number of farming practices that have changed in response to outbreaks of the H5N1 virus, including:.

For example, after nearly two years of using mainly culling to control the virus, the Vietnamese government in adopted a combination of mass poultry vaccination, disinfecting, culling, information campaigns and bans on live poultry in cities.

The majority of H5N1 flu cases have been reported in southeast and east Asia. Once an outbreak is detected, local authorities often order a mass slaughter of birds or animals infected or suspected to be infected. Robert G. Webster et al. Webster speculates that substandard vaccines may be preventing the expression of the disease in the birds but not stopping them from carrying or transmitting the virus through feces, or the virus from mutating. In order to protect their poultry from death from H5N1, China reportedly made a vaccine based on reverse genetics produced with H5N1 antigens, that Dr Wendy Barclay, a virologist at the University of Reading believes have generated up to six variations of H5N1.

bird flu symptoms causes transmission survival

According to the United Nations FAOwild water fowl likely plays a role in the avian influenza cycle and could be the initial source for AI viruses, which may be passed on through contact with resident water fowl or domestic poultry, particularly domestic ducks. A newly mutated virus could circulate within the domestic and possibly resident bird populations until highly pathogenic avian influenza HPAI arises.

This new virus is pathogenic to poultry and possibly to the wild birds that it arose from. Wild birds found to have been infected with HPAI were either sick or dead. This could possibly affect the ability of these birds to carry HPAI for long distances. However, the findings in Qinghai Lake - Chinasuggest that H5N1 viruses could possibly be transmitted between migratory birds. Short-distance transmission between farms, villages or contaminated local water bodies is likewise a distinct possibility.

The AI virus has adapted to the environment in ways such as using water for survival and to spread, and creating a reservoir ducks strictly tied to water.

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The water in turn influences movement, social behavior and migration patterns of water bird species. It is therefore of great importance to know the ecological strategy of influenza virus as well, in order to fully understand this disease and to control outbreaks when they occur.

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